The types of active trading strategies


This type of trading denotes the buying and selling of securities due to short-term price movements that happen in the market. therefore the concept related to the active trading is much different when compared to the normal trading policies followed by investors.

The usual buy and hold strategy is the one where there are buy and sell activities based on long-term price changes and the demand and supply created due to these changes. But active traders believe in making the most out of the short term trade changes and find profits from this time. Based on different markets and situations, there are 4 major classifications of this active trading strategies. Find more info by reading this write up to get a better understanding of active trading.

Active trading can be classified as:

  1. Day trading: the most well-known trading style in this category. As its name, this means buying and selling of securities on the same day. No shares are held for the next day they are bought and sold on the same day and profits are also made from these. This type of trading is opted by market leaders who are professional in trading because they are the ones who know the market well enough.
  2. Position Trading: this can be actually a buy and hold But when well-experienced traders undertake this it is seen as an active trading method. In this charts are used, that are either monthly or daily based ones which show how the price of the stock moves. These are based on trends of the share prices and hence also known as trend trading. Thus this can also go up to many days before they are settled off.
  3. Swing Trading: swing traders are the ones who make optimum use of the time when one trade finishes and a new trade begins. This short time can guarantee some good profits.these are also for more than a day trading, it can last longer but not as long as position trading. These traders create a basic set of trading rules based on fundamental analysis.
  4. Scalping: this is one of the quickest methods adopted by active traders. It makes the time between the ask and bid price times to make profits. Scalpers usually hold their positions for a short time as they tend to decrease the risks associated with this type of trading.

Hence these trading  methods make active trading clear as a concept to the new users.

Understand the limitations and challenges in crypto trading

There are now several exchanges handling crypto trading. The number of exchanges has been increasing but still the demand is also increasing at a rapid pace. Crypto transactions are known to be secure and convenient. But there are also limitations to be overcome. The bandwidth required to add the encryption and the time stamps of the blocks in the blockchain is quite high. The increasing need for a larger bandwidth is one main issue that experts are working on.

Crypto trading and crypto transactions do have some delays

When we talk about financial transactions in general, there was a time when to transfer money from one account to another there was a delay of several days to hours. But now most online transactions can happen in minutes. Crypto currency system has become popular as it has made fund transfers so much simpler and quicker. But that doesn’t mean that crypto transactions are always free of delays. There are inherent delays that cannot be avoided.

The demand is soaring

The increasing need for mining is one thing to talk about. More and more people are now looking to invest in crypto currencies. There is more demand than the availability of tokens. So when there are buyers alone and no sellers, the situation would lead to delays. There would be a wait time for some of the traders to change their decision and sell the currencies. Meanwhile there is work going on to increase the availability of crypto currencies as well.

Processing does take a while

From the step where the sender sends the order details top the time where the actual order is credited in the trader’s accounts there is a brief delay. The processing time here would depend again on many factors. There have been cases where the busy markets have led to the processing time extending for hours. But this is not the case always.

Validation of the transactions would also take a little time. This is a step that is executed in order to confirm the order and to credit the amount in the picture. Exchanges today come with responsive support teams. So in those instances where such delays occur users can easily get in touch with the teams to get their issues resolved.

Trading bots hide all these delays in a blackbox so that you would not have to wait for long durations. The bot would carry out its duties even when you are sleeping. This is a great post to read if you are looking for a trading bot for crypto currency trading.

Valuation of crypto currencies

Crypto currencies can be used in multiple places for a variety of online transactions. Given that the price of crypto currencies keep rising and falling, this makes a great instrument for trading as well. The most common thing that most crypto traders do is to buy when a currency price falls and then sell when it increases. So with a small investment the trader would be able to take home good profits. One other popular trend is to pick out the best ICOs. ICOs or initial coin offerings are those events where a new company that wants funds would offer crypto tokens for sale. Traders would buy them and then later be able to trade them in several standard exchanges as well.

When you plan to buy a crypto currency the main question to ask yourself is – which crypto currency should you buy? You should understand the intrinsic value of the currency. Valuation of a currency and the valuation of an ICO is not straightforward. It would be a consolidation of various factors. Here are a few things to keep in mind when you valuate a currency:

  1. Mining methods

The method of mining the currency, ease of availability and the cost of mining would all matter when you compare two or more currencies. Some of the currencies are directly available to be purchased from several sources with FIAT currencies. Few currencies can be mined with online mining tools. If you have to spend a lot of time and money on mining for a currency then that would add to the cost of the currency. The profits made should be able to tally the expenses and outweigh them.

  1. How much is available?

The supply demand relationship might be a complicated one. But this relationship should be understood in order to find out whether the demand would increase and be followed by the increase in the price as well. Quantity theory is something that many trading experts follow. This takes into account the amount of currencies available to be mined at any given point, the cost of mining and the overall profits made.

When you valuate a currency make sure that you take more than just one parameter to understand the real value. This website gives a lot of information about the poplar crypto trading bots that are known to make the traders’ work simpler. These trading bots also save time so that even the busy professionals can get involved in crypto trading.

A beginner’s guide to bot trading in crypto currencies

If you have made the decision to become a crypto trader it is one of the best decisions to make. Crypto trading has recently established itself as one of the most profitable options for traders. Online trading as a concept took some time to be accepted widely. But then, as people started understanding the many benefits it offers and the convenience of using online trading systems the popularity shot up. The same also applies to the concept of trading with bots in the crypto trading market.

Can you make profits when you trade with bots?

If someone tells you that all trading bots are rigged, do not believe that statement. If someone tells you that trading bots would make you rich in no time, do not believe that either. Trading bots would function like any average trader. They are subject to the risks and the fluctuations in the market. When there are external factors affecting the price changes then the bots would also be impacted. Trading bots by themselves are nothing but algorithms that watch certain aspects of the market and then take decisions based on certain rules. So if you ask if any trading bot would be profitable, it would be a tough question to answer. There are various factors that determine whether a trading bot can really help a trader make money:

The automation level- with some bots, the entire process is carried out by the bot including the decisions for buying and selling specific currencies. In some bots the trader would be taking the decisions and the bot would simply place the order. The strategy adopted here would determine the success of the bot.

The precision with which the bot gathers market data and computes the technical indicators would be another factor that influences the profitability of the bot. Even the most accurate codes tend to have technical troubles. Codes that are thoroughly tested would be safer to use.

Remember that no matter how profitable a bot can be you should still make your decisions wisely. Not doing so might lead to losses instead of profits. When you need information you would find a lot of online resources that talk about trading bots in general. And if you need information about specific bots see here. The more you study about crypto trading the better you would be as a trader and the better would be the profits you make as well.


Understanding the use of bots in crypto trading
If you have been using crypto currencies for trading then you must be aware of the boom of the crypto bots. Do a thorough research about the bot you choose before you make your deposit. Consider features like the simplicity of the user interface, provision for a demo account etc. to make your decision.
What is a crypto trading bot?
When you trade crypto currencies you would be functioning similar to equity traders. You would fix a price when you buy a currency and then a target price for selling the currency. Several of the daily activities can be automated with the help of relevant pieces of codes. The same is also applicable to the trading scenario. Crypto bots comprise of algorithms designed so as to abide by certain rules to take decisions. And once the decision is made the bot would then place the order for the trade- be it a buying order or a selling order.
There is an application programming interface or API that takes care of the exchanges that happen. When your bot is activated the APIs would act as the interface for the communication between the bot and the crypto currency exchange. So the trading bot chosen would be communicating with the trading exchanges in order to place your orders and help you buy and sell crypto currencies.
Bot forums are beneficial
If you find a useful reference that talks about bot trading or crypto trading in general then your job would get much easier. There are online forums available with most of the trading systems. All the users that use the corresponding bots can get in touch with each other and with the experts from the teams. The support system provided by the automated trading systems for crypto trading is quite impressive. The forum would be a great place for the new traders to communicate with the experienced traders and have a lot of their questions answered.
Bot trading is legal
Some have the wrong notion that bot trading is illegal. But the regulations being implemented across the world target only those scammers. This is a measure to give traders the credibility they would want in crypto trading. Trading bots have led to the increase in the number of traders significantly in the recent years. So market experts find trading bots to be a boon for the growth of the crypto currency market.

Sports Path’s Technical Report on the 2014 World Cup

The World Cup is over and Germany are still celebrating. And the first detailed analysis of the recently completed has arrived! Robin Russell of Sports Path and his colleagues have compiled their “World Cup Technical Report 2014”. In the first of which will likely be many analyses, their detailed look at the numbers offers some interesting observations.

The report team was comprised of analysts, coaches and coaching education specialists. They analyzed all of the matches played and prepared a report that is targeted for coaches who are interested in practical lessons from the World Cup. The team presents a wealth of interesting statistics. More importantly, they use those data to offer a number of implications for coaching, provide “common sense” answers to questions about their data and highlight what separated the winners from those who when home early.

2014 football world cup was 20th FIFA world cup, Brazil hosted the tournament, this was the second time for Brazil to host the tournament. Thirty one nations joined the tournament to compete against each other. Total of 64 matches were played in 12 different stadiums.  The tournament had 1 million viewers from 202 different countries, click to read more.

Here’s a short summary of they key findings:

Teams, which scored 3 or more goals in a match, had a 100% win probability.

The “Gold Zone” (GZ) – a box extending a few yards outside of either post and to the 18 yard line.

80% of the goals were from strikes taken inside of the GZ. However, most of the attempts were taken from outside of this area.

A greater percentage of shots taking within the GZ were on target compared to outside of the Gold Zone

Thus, strike attempts taken inside the GZ were more effective and more accurate.


The most productive zones for delivering the ball into the GZ were the areas identified as the Central Attacking Zone (CAZ – the box on top of the penalty area) and Box Pass Zone (BPZ – the two boxes just outside of the Gold Zone). That is, balls delivered from these areas were more likely to result in retained possession and higher rates of conversion.

However, teams relied more on deliveries outside of the CAZ and BPZ as well as corner kicks.

Transition and Scoring

In open play, 49% of all goals were scored within 5 seconds of regaining possession and over 80 % of goals were scored within 15 seconds of regaining the ball.


Effective distributions by Goalkeepers played a role in securing attacking-third possessions. Teams should develop the technical and tactical abilities to transfer the ball from the defending to attacking third

Teams that directed their throw-ins away from the congested area and into a more spacious area were more effective in securing a possession in the attacking-third.

These are the highlights. There’s more, much more. To download a free receive copy of the Sports Path World Cup Technical Report 2014, visit Robin’s e-Learning Blog (CLICK HERE).
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Labels: Original Research, Strategy

Player Perceptions of Artificial Turf

The use of artificial turf (AT) playing fields continues. Despite recent research on performance and health issues surrounding AT, debate over injury risks and heat still swirl around the topic of “playing on plastic”. The safe use of AT is a complex issue and perceptions can influence how players perform as well as their susceptibility to injury. A recent study shows that professional players generally view AT negatively and feel that it raises the risk of injury and results in more delayed-onset muscle and joint soreness. Some of their perceptions may be rooted in evidence while some may not. However, it is important for coaches and trainers to understand how players feel about playing and training on AT.

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The researchers collected surveys from 99 professional players from six MLS teams. They asked them to recall their experiences playing on AT and grass.

The survey yielded some important findings:

97% felt that playing and practicing on AT resulted in greater muscle and joint soreness.
90% felt that it took more time to recover after playing a match on AT.
94% felt that AT raised their risk of sustaining an injury.
Most players felt that AT was stiffer, had greater friction and exacted a greater metabolic cost than grass.
A large percentage agreed that the quality of the AT was an important factor in injury risk.

Overall, players had a negative perception of AT. They felt that AT increased the risk of injury and resulted in greater muscle fatigue and soreness. These perceptions seemed to be due to the mechanical properties of the turf.

The authors of the study mentioned that pre-established bias and personal experience may have shaped their opinion of AT. No doubt that a large percentage of public comments made by athletes and in the press about AT is negative. This can easily shape ones opinion of a particular playing surface. Also, comments provided by the players suggested that many have had negative experiences on AT: “All my 3 biggest injuries have happened on turf matches”, “Coming off back-to-back ACL tears… I feel mentally scared to play on turf”, “fear of having a cleat stick in the turf” and “The first time I played on (turf), I broke my 5th metatarsal”. Thus, it’s not surprising that players generally view AT negatively.

Are the player’s perceptions of increased injuries correct? We recently conducted a review of eight research studies looking at the rate of injuries on AT and grass. We found that playing or training on AT did not raise the risk of injury. This held for male and female players and for young and adult players. In fact, some injuries were actually lower on AT. Thus, from a research perspective, there is no evidence that playing on AT results in more injuries. However, this is a complicated issue.

Earlier research suggests that the player’s perception of greater fatigue and effort may be correct. The game does change when played of AT. Ball movement, passing sequences and playing tactics are different on AT compared to grass. For example, more short passes are attempted on AT along with fewer slide tackles. This is something that could increase effort, cause more fatigue and increase delayed-onset muscle soreness.

Fatigue along with muscle and joint soreness that persists 24-48 hours after a match can impact both performance and injury risk. In youth and college competitions, multiple matches are often played with limited time for recovery. There’s little debate that fatigue raises injury risk. If fatigue and soreness, either real or perceived, is greater after competing on AT, there is the possibility that injuries could occur during subsequent match, whether played on grass or AT. Regardless of the surface, injury risk may be increased due to greater fatigue or changes in movement patterns resulting from soreness.

Unfortunately, we could find no research on muscle soreness or markers of muscle damage after playing on AT. Injury studies classify an “injury” as something that prevents a player from participating for at least one day. While muscle soreness may hinder play, it usually doesn’t force a player to the sideline or count as an injury. Thus we can’t confirm the player’s perceptions of muscle and joint soreness after playing on AT. Neither can we discount them.

The authors of the study point out that it is important to understand player perceptions of AT. For example, if players routinely report more fatigue during the match as well as muscle and joint soreness 24-48 hours after a match, coaches can make adjustments in playing time and training schedule. Strategic substitutions and increased recovery may help players avoid injuries that result from short- and long-term fatigue. This is particularly true for teams where a Friday-Sunday schedule is played.

This study will not end the debate over playing and training on AT. It does confirm what many have long felt, many players prefer playing on natural grass and feel that it is a safer surface. It also emphasizes the need for more in-depth research into the use of AT fields. Understanding issues such as delayed onset muscle or joint soreness, effects of a congested calendar and long-term fatigue can go a long way in either confirming or allaying player perceptions.


Poulos CCN, Gallucci J, Gage WH, Baker J, Buitrago S, Macpherson AK (2014) The perceptions of professional soccer players on the risk of injury from competition and training on natural grass and 3rd generation artificial turf, BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 6:11

Fitness Training With Small-Sided Games

Peak performance during a soccer match involves many different factors. The most obvious are technical skills and tactical abilities. However, the factor that influences a player’s ability to perform over the course of a 70-90 minute match is his or her fitness level. From a scientific standpoint, fitness is defined as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and represents the maximal amount of oxygen that an athlete can breath in and convert into energy. The most common ways to increase VO2max is through either continuous running at around 50-60% of maximal heart rate or interval running using short, high-intensity bouts at about 80-90% of maximal heart rate. These types of training have been used by coaches for years to improve player’s fitness.
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Coaches usually have limited practice time with their players. So, it is difficult to squeeze in a 15-20 min running session when the technical and tactical abilities of the individual players and the team need to be addressed. One strategy that coaches use is small-sided training. This involves short matches using 2-8 players per side in a small grid. Several 2-5 minute games are played with a short rest periods in between. The idea behind small sided training is to incorporate all three aspects of soccer in a single drill: technical, tactical as well as fitness.
One way to judge how well a training program improves fitness VO2max is to determine the physiological demands of the drill. Most research studies show that during small sided training, heart rates can reach as high as 85-90% of maximal. Blood lactic acid levels can also reach 4-5 mmol/l and ratings of perceived effort typically describe the games as very difficult and near maximum. The heart rate, blood lactate and perceived effort responses to small sided games are all well within the responses found for interval running and higher than continuous running. That is, small sided games can be as physically demanding as performing repeated bouts of high intensity running.One characteristic that distinguishes small sided training from interval running is the coach’s ability to vary the intensity of the training (Rampinini et al. 2007). By changing the number of players, the size of the grid, the match length or recovery interval, intensity can be increased or decreased. A recent study examining these variables found that 3v3 matches played on a large grid (18x30m) elicited greater heart rates than those played on a small grid (12x20m). As the number of players increased from 3v3 to 6v6, the intensity of the effort tended to decrease, especially if the grid size remained small. Coaches can also elevate the overall intensity of the drill by increasing the match duration to around 4 minutes and by using an active recovery interval of 2-3 minutes. They can further change the intensity of the drill by providing verbal encouragement or by simply letting the players play. Thus, the intensity of the small sided games can be varied by changing a few variables. This allows the coach to tailor the practice to meet the needs of the team.The effectiveness of small sided games is seen in the fitness improvements over the course of a season. Recent research shows that following an eight month season where players trained with small sided games, fitness was markedly improved (Impellizzeri et al., 2006). The distance covered during a Yo-Yo test was increased and VO2max improved. Also, a recent study out of Italy found in soccer players who trained using small sided game training had similar improvements on endurance tests and match performance as did players who trained by running. Based on this, it is clear that small sided games can improve fitness and that the changes are similar to those caused by interval and continuous running.

From a practical standpoint, the coach should vary the intensity of the games based on a session by session basis. Intensity should either be increased or decreased based on the players needs: their current level of fitness, recent training session or match intensity and overall level of fatigue / tiredness. In general, players should not be training at the highest intensity every session. This is particularly true after intense matches. Repeatedly training players at the highest intensity can lead to “burnout” and can increase the risk of injury. Rather the intensity should be tailored to the situation at hand. A few guidelines are provided in the table.


Variable High Intensity Low Intensity
Number of players 3 v 3 6 v 6
Grid Size Large grid Small grid
Number of Matches 4-5 3-4
Duration 4 minutes 3 minutes
Recovery 2-3 minutes of light jogging 3-4 minutes of rest
Coaching Verbal encouragement Let the kids play

All of the available research indicates that small sided games are very effective at improving the player’s level of fitness. The physiological improvements and match performances after this type of training are similar to those that occur with interval or distance running. The advantages of small sided training are numerous. The intensity can be easily varied by the coach to elicit an optimal training response. The technical and tactical aspects of the game are stressed. Lastly, the players seem to prefer the competitive nature of the activity as opposed run training. Thus, there is a string case for using small sided games as a way to improve player fitness.

Further Reading:

Rampinini E, Impellizzeri FM, Castagna C, Abt G, Chamari K, Sassi A, Marcora SM. (2007) Factors influencing physiological responses to small-sided soccer games. Journal of Sports Sciences. 25:659-666.

Impellizzeri FM, Marcora SM, Castagna C, Reilly T, Sassi A, Iaia FM, Rampinini E. (2006) Physiological and performance effects of generic versus specific aerobic training in soccer players. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 27: 483-492.

Cutting-Edge Research: PK Shootouts, Pressure and Choking

Choking under pressure is far too common at all levels of sport. Choking occurs when players under perform in situations where there is a high degree of importance. In soccer, the highest-pressure situation is the penalty kick shootouts. Individual efforts can often mean the difference between winning and losing a championship. Some players step forward and bury their kicks. Others choke, sometimes missing the goal entirely.

What causes some players for succeed and some to choke during high pressure situations? Drs. Geir Jordet and Esther Hartmen of the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences addressed this question in a research article published in the August 2008 issue of the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Their study focused on the success and behavior of players taking penalty kicks and pressures surrounding their effort.

The investigators viewed video tapes of penalty kick shootouts that occurred during matches played in the World Cup, European Championships and Champions League competitions between 1972 and 2006. Overall, there were 36 shootouts involving 359 kicks and 291 players.

They focused on three key variables that affected success. The first was “valence”, an indicator of the perceived pressure. Many times, the outcome of the match is not directly dependent on the success of the attempt. The shootout goes on whether the kicker is successful or not. For example, the match is neither won nor lost on the first attempt in a shootout. This is referred to as a neutral valence. At some point during the shootout, a player has the chance to end patch with a successful kick. With a goal, his team wins. But with a miss, the shootout continues. This is defined as a positive valence because of the possible positive outcome. On the other hand, players are faced with the situation where a missed kick would end the match and result in the team losing. This is negative valence because of the possibility of a negative result.

The second variable was “avoidance behavior”. Approach looking players placed the ball at the penalty mark then walked backwards, facing the keeper, in preparation for the attempt. Avoidance looking players, placed the ball, turned and walked away with their back to the keeper.

The final variable was preparation speed. This was defined as the time from when the referee signaled the kick to until the shooter began his run-up. This is a time period that can be controlled by the player.

The investigators found several interesting relationships between these variables and success of the penalty kick. In the situation of negative valence, when losing the match was a possibility, players more often avoided looking at the goal keeper and took less preparation time. As for performance, players were far more successful in the situation of positive valence. When making the kick meant victory and a miss meant continuing the shootout, players were successful 92% of the time. However, when faced with negative valence, players made only 62% of their shots. Thus, the possibility of a negative outcome results in more misses than the potential of a positive result. This condition also seems to cause players to alter their approach to taking the shot.

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Choking under pressure is a very complex phenomenon. Many, many factors contribute to performance under pressure situations. This study provides a small glimpse into how and why players playing at the highest level sometimes fail.


Jordet G, Hartmen E (2008) Avoidance motivation and choking under pressure in soccer penalty shootouts. Journal of Sports and Exercise Psychology, 30:450-457.
Posted by Jay Williams, Ph.D. Labels: Goalkeepers, Psychology

Pitch Size, Fitness and Technical Training

Small-sided matches are often used by coaches to develop fitness of his/her team. The advantage is that fitness can be improved within the context of the game. This type of training also emphasizes both technical and tactical abilities. A number of variables can be altered when designing a small-sided game such as the number of players and rules modification. Another key component of small sided matches is the size of the playing area. A new study from researchers the University of Basque County in Spain highlights the ability of small sided matches to improve both physical and skill performance by varying the pitch size. This investigation shows that by changing the playing area, fitness or technical skills can be emphasized.

Ten 16 year-old boys played 5v5 matches (plus a goal keeper) on pitches of three different sizes. The large pitch was 62 x 44m (roughly half of a full-sized pitch), the medium pitch was 50 x 35m and the small pitch was 23 x 23m. Matches lasted 8 minutes and players were instructed to play without input from the coaches. Each player was fitted with a heart rate monitor and portable GPS to track physiological and physical profiles. Matches were also filmed to determine technical behaviors such as tackles, dribbles, passes, etc.

The physiological responses varied based on the pitch size. The large pitch elicited slightly higher heart rates and players spent 50% of the match exercising at more than 90% of their maximal heart rate. On the small pitch, only 41% of the match was spent exercising in this heart rate zone. During the large pitch matches, players covered about 1000m compared to slightly less than 700m on the small pitch. Also, the large pitch required the players to perform more high-speed sprints per match (6 versus 1). Thus, small-sided matches played on a large pitch elicit greater physiological responses. That is, they are more taxing on the cardiovascular system compared to matches played on a small pitch – a key to developing cardiovascular fitness.

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The lower physiological response to the small pitch matches may be due to the amount of time the ball was in play. Over the course of all matches, there were several stoppages for goals, fouls, throw-ins, etc. On the large pitch, the ball was in play for 82% of the 8-minute period, compared to only 68% for the small pitch. Thus, when on the large pitch, players played for over a minute more than when on the small pitch. The investigators assume that when the ball is not in play, players generally stop moving, thereby reducing the demand on the cardiovascular system.

On the other hand, matches played on the small pitch required more technical skills. During these matches, number of interceptions, ball control, clearances, restarts and shots were all greater than when playing on the large pitch. For example, on the small pitch there were about 11 interceptions per match compared to only 6 for the large pitch. Thus, small sided matches elicit a greater number of technical skills.

This study’s results suggest that coaches can the demands of training by varying the pitch size of small-sided games. Expanding the size will emphasize fitness components whereas shrinking the pitch forces players to focus on technical skills. Previous studies also emphasized that the physiological intensity of small-sided matches can also be affected by varying the recovery interval between consecutive matches and by using verbal encouragement (see previous SSO article). Technical skills and tactical awareness can be further stressed by providing constraints such as two-touch rules.

In the end, this study provides more evidence that small-sided games can be a very effective training tool. They can be used to improve fitness and technical skills and tactical knowledge. The key is for coaches to design their training session and vary the games to meet the needs of their team.


Casamichana D, Castellano J (2010) Time-motion, heart rate, perceptual and motor behavior demands in small-sided games: Effects of pitch size. Journal of Sports Sciences, DOI:10.1080/02640414.2010.521168

Posted by Jay Williams, Ph.D. Labels: Current Research, Training