World Conference on Science and Soccer

One on the goals of the Science of Soccer Online is to bridge the gap between researchers who study the science behind the game and coaches who want to train their players using cutting-edge methods and techniques. In 2014, the 4th World Conference on Science and Soccer (WCSS) will be held for the first time in the United States. The conference will bring together individuals who are interested in the study and/or practical performance of soccer players, including sports scientists, coaches, strength and conditioning specialists, sports physiotherapists, exercise physiologists, professors and students. The overall goal is to bring some of the world’s best scientists, coaches, and practitioners into a conversation about how research can improve performance on the pitch.The conference provides the scope to share the knowledge of scientific research, technical knowledge, and experience to improve the game of football. It also provides overviews and current issues that the players are facing on the field. the conference brings together 20 nations and 300 participants together on the same platform. This page will give you more information about the conference.

The WCSS will be held June 5-7, 2014 and is hosted by the University of Portland and Program Chair, Dr. Terry Favero. This is the first time the conference will be held in the United States, but over 300 participants from over 30 countries are expected to join the US audience. Previous host cities are Ghent (Belgium), Port Elizabeth (South Africa), and Liverpool (United Kingdom).

Anyone who is interested in the scientific study and/or the practical performance of soccer, from grass roots to the elite professional level, is invited. This includes academics, sports scientists and exercise physiologists, full and part-time youth coaches, strength and conditioning specialists, athletic trainers and physiotherapists, as well as administrators, teachers and students. A broad range of interests will foster translating research results from the laboratory to the useful applications on the pitch.

The program includes speakers and topics such as:

Plenary Speaker: Rasmus Ankersen, Author of The Gold Mine Effect: Crack the Secrets of High Performance
Managing Training Load: Aaron Coutts, University of Technology Sydney
Soccer Nutrition: James Morton, Liverpool John Moores University
Soccer and Health: Peter Krustrup, University of Exeter
Match Analysis: Chris Carling, LOSC Lille Métropole Football Club
Recovery From Training/Matches: Shona Halson, Australian Institute of Sport
Sport Psychology: Gier Jordet, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
Youth Specific Training Model: Martin Bucheit, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Aspire Academy
Athletic Skills Development and Soccer: Jan Willem Teunissen, Ajax Youth Academy/Geert Savelsbergh, University of Amsterdam
Soccer Biomechanics: Hiro (Hiroyuki) Nunome, Nagoya University/Ewald Essig, University of Duisburg-Essen
The Numbers Game: Why Everything You Know about Soccer is Wrong. Christopher Anderson, Cornell University
Match Analysis: Ben Knapper, Lead Performance Arsenal FC
Injury Prediction Model: Dave Tenney, Head Fitness Coach and Sport Scientist Seattle Sounders

Other topics of discussion will include:

Training and testing
Performance/match analysis
Women’s soccer
Sport psychology
Talent identification
Youth development
Injury prevention
Soccer and health
Lab to field sessions focused on:
– Speed and Agility for Soccer Athletes
– Managing Training Load During the College Soccer Season
– Strength Training for the Soccer Athlete

Please join us for this exciting and informative event! For more information on the WCSS, click here.
Posted by Jay Williams, Ph.D.

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Evolving Game Speed and Style of Play

Charles Darwin said, “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” While Darwin was talking about species evolution, the concept of evolution holds true for sport, including soccer. Teams that fail to adapt to changes in the game, are often left behind, unable to take advantage of or respond to new strategies, player characteristics, training routines, injury prevention / treatment, player identification or rule changes. Compared to other sports, the laws of the game, equipment has remained relatively constant. However, many will argue that the game continues to change and evolve. The extent of change is shown in a recent study of past World Cup Championship matches. This study shows that over the past 44 years, the style of play has evolved to one that emphasizes speed, technical skill, decision-making and set pieces.

The Australian researchers analyzed the championship matches of the last 12 FIFA World Cup finals, from 1966 to 2010. They reviewed the broadcast video of each match and analyzed variables such as the number of passes attempted and various stoppages of play. They also utilized TrakPerformance software to calculate the ball speed and player movements and positioning.This software follows the movement pattern of the participating player both visually and mechanically, the tracking operator takes the reference point by marking on the ground. The tracking operator helps to find out the speed, distance covered by an individual player. The Trakperformance can also find out the heart rate of player.  The TrakPerformance is top news in the soccer world.

The first key finding is that the number of stoppages was consistent across the 12 matches. On average, there were ~120 stops during each match. There were no major changes in the number of free kicks, corner kicks, goal kicks or throw-ins. However, the average time taken during these stoppages steadily increased by about 7 seconds. For example, while the number free kicks at the goal remained consistent, the amount of time spent setting up the set piece increased from 38 to 63 seconds.

Second, the increased stoppage time decreased in the average amount of play time between stoppages from 29 to 25 seconds. This in turn, reduced the percentage of the match spent with the ball in play, from about 70% to just a bit more than 52%.

Third, game speed, determined by both ball speed and the number of passes per minute increased from the 1966 match to 2010. Ball speed increased by about 15% while the number of passes attempted per minute increased by 35%.

Lastly, the researchers found that the game “density” has increased. That is, the number of players in the vicinity of the ball grew over the 44-year analysis period.

What does all of these results mean? Despite the amount of work pout into this study, it analyzed only 12 matches, played at the highest level. So, the results may or may not be applicable to other levels of play.

However, the authors raise some interesting ideas based on their results. The increased duration of stoppages has led to a change in the work-rest ratio during the match. Coupled with increased game speed, matches have evolved from one of continuous motion to one characterized by shorter intervals of high intense activity, followed by longer recovery periods (stoppages). Sprint speed also seems to be a premium. Whether trying to separate from a defender and create space or closing on an attacking player, high speed sprints with longer recovery periods is more commonplace today compared to the 1970s.

Increased game speed, ball speed and passes per minute coupled with greater player density emphasize an increasing need for technical skills and decision-making.

The authors also point to the emergence of “specialists”, particularly for set pieces. Teams seem to spend more time setting up set pieces for set piece specialists, attempting to capitalize on an uncontested service.

All of this has important implications for training young players. First, in terms of fitness, emphasis should be placed on developing the ability to perform repeated sprints with short recovery intervals. While recent studies show that soccer has a major endurance component, the ability to execute high-intensity sprints and recovery quickly is increasingly important. Second, developing sprint speed is an increasing necessity. Third, technique and decision-making should be emphasized. The ability to play in and out of tight spaces is critical as is the ability for teams to quickly organize themselves in defending and attacking situations. Finally, set pieces are increasingly seen as scoring opportunities. The ability to create scoring chances and the ability to defend against set pieces can affect the match’s outcome.

“Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change.” (Stephen Hawking). Recognizing how the game has evolved is the first step in adapting. Seeing change as it is happening will help ensure that your team stays ahead of the game.


Wallace JL, Norton KI (2013) Evolution of World Cup soccer final games 1966-2010: Game structure, speed and play patterns. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport,
Posted by Jay Williams, Ph.D.

Make money from home

To make money is everyone’s dream and nothing is as exciting as making it from the comfort of your house. If you are able to be successful in making money through online without stepping out, then you can spend more valuable time with your family and friends. Also, you will have the control of the time and your life.

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Small-Sided Games. Part II: What is the Best Configuration?

Written By Jeremy Williams

Part I of this series showed that small-sided games can be used as an effective training tool to improve and maintain fitness. They can be as effective and perhaps more effective that traditional modes of training (e.g. endurance or high-intensity running). However, implementing small-sided games into a training session can be difficult due to the many possible configurations and the number of variables and factors that must be accounted for. The number of players per side, dimensions of the field, number of games, duration of the games, and if goalkeepers are used can all influence the amount and intensity of work that is required of the players. Several recent research studies have looked at how the variables mentioned above affect the workload experienced by the players. In Part II, we take a look at the question, what is the best configuration to improve player fitness and performance?

Knowing the advantages that small-sided game training provide, coaches are trying to find the most effective configuration of small-sided games to maximize fitness and training. Common variables that are typically manipulated are size of teams (2v2, 3v3, etc.), playing field dimensions, restrictions and inclusion of goalkeepers.

As in small-sided games, less number of players have involved each player gets many chances for touches of the ball. This increases the players’ individual skill and team skill as well. Small sided games are easy to set up and it is advantageous for the players as they get more passes and can score more goals. To know more about Small sided games please check blog.

Whether teams are in preseason training or having reserve players train at a higher intensity on post-match recovery days, the number of players available will influence the size of the small-sided games used. For example, if 12 players are available, a coach has options of playing four 2v2, two 3v3 or one 6v6 game. If only 6 players are available, a coach might be limited to a single 3v3 game. He or she may also set the size of the playing field to varying dimensions, altering the area per player in order to increase or decrease the distance players must cover. Given this, researchers have begun to investigate the physiological demands required for each type of configuration. Studies have focused on how manipulating these variables will provide a training effect by increasing heart rate, reported perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactatic acid levels (BLa). Knowing the physiological demands of the various configurations can give coaches a guideline as to how long and what limitations to put on the small sided games in order to achieve their training goals for the players.

Studies have generally focused on comparing player numbers ranging from 2v2 to 6v6 while adjusting the field dimensions to hold the area per player constant. As the number of players increases, heart rates decrease as do RPE values while Bla levels increase (Delall et al., 2011; Owen et al., 2011; Rampinini et al., 2007). For example, players in a 4v4 game spend more time exercising at a heart rate of less than 85 percent of their maximal while players in a 3v3 format spend more time at greater than 90 percent (Abrantes et al., 2012). Games using larger teams such as 7v7 seem to further blunt the HR responses because of less ball activity (Castellano et al., 2012). Increasing the field size (so that the area per player is increased) while holding the number of players constant also increases the workload but to a lesser extent (Rampinini et al., 2007). Based on these studies, it seems that player number is the most important variable determining the physiological response. At a constant area per player, the 3v3 format provides a greater physiological overload and could be a more efficient training strategy to improve fitness than the 6v6 format. For example, a 3v3 match players on a 20m x 25m pitch (83 square meters per player) seems to be an optimal format.

Putting a touch-limit on the players during the small-sided game can also increase the workload (Delall et al., 2011). Compared to 2-touch and unlimited touch games, a 1-touch restriction result in higher heart rate, BLa, and total distance covered in high-intensity efforts. Limiting the number of touches forces players to constantly move off the ball to position themselves to receive a pass or defend, thereby increasing the physiological demand.

Some coaches utilize goalkeepers in their small-sided games. However, including goalkeepers reduces heart rates when compared to the games in which players were trying to score on small goals (no goalkeeper).

Unfortunately, there is very little research on how the duration of the games and recovery interval between games affects heart rate, RPE and BLa. However, based on what is known about intermittent, high-intensity exercise, longer games with shorter recovery should elicit a greater physiological demand. Also, the training studies showed that 5-10, 3-min games with a 2-min recovery are quite effective in improving fitness.

Based on the available research, it appears that the most important factor influencing the physiological load of small-sided training is the number of players per team. Smaller games using a 3v3 format elicit a greater training load than larger formats. Increasing field dimensions (area per player) also increases the load but to a lesser extent. Imposing restrictions such as limiting the number of touches (e.g. 1-touch) also increases demand whereas utilizing goals and goalkeepers reduces the workload. This seems logical, as fewer players on a larger field require involvement by individual players. Movement off the ball, readying oneself to receive or defend a pass is extremely important in the game of soccer. With reduced numbers of players in the small-sided games, it becomes even more imperative that all players are constantly moving. On the other hand, larger games with goalkeepers can result in less individual involvement during the game and consequently, less physiological demand.

From a research standpoint, it appears the small-sided game training can improve and maintain fitness. The improvements seem to be greater in tests designed to measure “soccer fitness” such as repeated sprint or intermittent running tests. Also, by adjusting variables such as player number, field size and restrictions on play, the physiological workload can be adjusted. For example, a “light” training session may use 6v6 games that include a goalkeeper whereas a “hard” session might use 3v3 and 1-touch, possession-type games. A second advantage of small-sided games compared to other fitness activities is their ability to train players in technical (i.e. soccer specific skills) and tactical aspects of the game. Touch, passing accuracy and moving to open space are all stressed in the small-sided format. Lastly, coaches can also build in incentives to increase player effort and motivation such as moving players between teams, making the games competitive and providing rewards for the players who win the most games or score the most goals.

Thus, coaches can design small-sided games to accommodate a variety of training goals. Given the multiple benefits of small-sided games for training, it makes sense for coaches to implement this style of training when trying to increase or maintain fitness. As an added bonus, technical and tactical dimensions of the game may also be improved. On balance, small-sided games should improve the overall performance of the players as they move into competitive, full-sided matches.

Jeremy Williams is currently the Volunteer Assistant with the Florida State Women’s team. He is also a graduate student in the FSU sport science program.


Abrantes, C, Nunes, M, Macas, V, Leite, N, Sampaio, J. Effects of the number of players and game type constraints on heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and technical actions of small-sided soccer games. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2012, 26: 976-981.

Castellano, J, Casamichana, D, Dellal, A. Influence of game format and number of players on heart rate responses and physical demands in small-sided soccer games. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2012, published ahead of print, DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825d99dc.

Dellal, A, Hill-Haas, S, Lago-Penas, C, Chamari, K. Small-sided games in soccer: Amateur vs. professional players’ physiological responses, physical, and technical activities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2011, 25: 2371-2381.

Owen, A, Wong, D, McKenna, M, Dellal, A. Heart rate responses and technical comparison between small- vs. large-sided games in elite professional soccer. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2011, 25: 2104-2110.

Rampinini, E, Impellizzeri, FM, Castagna, C, Abt, G, Chamari, K, Sassi, A, Marcora, SM, Factors influencing physiological responses to small-sided soccer games. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25: 659-666, 2007.
Posted by Jay Williams, Ph.D. Labels: Training

Sports Nutrition – A Head Fake Towards a Healthy Lifestyle

There is little doubt that the number of overweight and obese children is increasing. Two of the underlying causes are the lack of exercise and poor nutritional choices. Whether is a recreational or competitive program, participating in youth soccer provides a way to increase physical activity. At all levels coaches stress the need to exercise, train and “get in shape”. In many cases, the lessons learned through youth sports leads to a more active adulthood. Youth sports can also serve as an opportunity to emphasize the importance of a healthy diet. However, a recent study raises concern about the food environment in youth sports. It identifies the nutritional challenges and frustrations that many parents face in encouraging healthy eating. Most importantly it highlights the role that youth coaches can play in helping young athletes develop a diet that will help them perform better on the field as well as develop a healthier lifestyle.

Researchers from the University of Minnesota conducted several focus group discussions about youth sports and nutrition. The groups consisted parents of youth basketball players. The players’ age ranged from 6 to 13 years. Some were recreational players and some played in the competitive, travel leagues.

Several themes emerged from the discussions with the parents. First, most of the parents agreed that youth players consume too many post-game snacks like cakes, cookies, chips and soda. For the most part, recreational players and male players tend to eat more snack food compared to competitive and female athletes. In many cases, snacks are simply “what’s available” through concession stands or provided by parents.

Second, busy schedules, traveling to and from games and practices as well as the timing of various events resulted in too much fast food and too much “eating in the car”. The time crunch also limited the ability to pack snacks. Weekend tournaments were mentioned as a difficult nutritional challenge. Eating between games often means fast food or dining at the concession stand. Not knowing where to eat or what to eat was a common theme.

Third, parents expressed frustration over knowing what to eat and what not to eat. There were several comments such as “are sports drinks healthy or unhealthy?” and “I have no idea which ones [granola of energy bars] really are healthy.” This is one of the most striking conclusions – parents feel they need more information about nutrition and sports but do not know where to look or who to ask. They suggest that it would be helpful if diet information were provided to them and their players through handouts or a website. Most importantly, they feel that that such information is more effective if delivered by a coach, not a parent. That is, a stronger message could be delivered by a coach or other mentor rather than by a mom or dad.

This third concern raises a unique opportunity for soccer coaches to be “agents of change”. That is, they can play a pivotal role in shaping the nutritional habits of young players. By emphasizing the importance of a solid diet as a way to maximize performance on the field, they are also instilling the concepts of healthy food choices that will last throughout adulthood. For example, coaches communicating with their players about diet and training using a blog or social media would deliver a very important message. It could change their player’s game and improve their lifestyle.

When computer science professor Randy Pausch, who died from pancreatic cancer, delivered his famous “The Last Lecture”, he talked of using “head fakes” when teaching students. That is, encouraging students to engage in an activity because it is something they enjoy, while the ultimate goal is actually teaching them larger, more fundamental concepts. Coaches can encourage players to eat foods that are low in fat including lean meats, fresh fruits and vegetables using the rationale that such a diet will improve their performance at training and in matches. However, the ultimate, long-term goal is developing the nutritional habits that will remain a healthy lifestyle. And research shows that teenagers who develop solid exercise and diet habits will be more likely exercise more and eat better as adults. So, the soccer diet, designed to improve performance on the pitch is actually a head fake to teach young players the fundamental of healthy nutrition.

There is no doubt that diet and exercise play key roles in the battle against childhood obesity. Training and nutrition are also keys to successful soccer performance. Thus, using coaches to educate players can have a two-fold effect – improving performance on the field AND laying the foundation for a healthy lifestyle.

Note: A word of thanks to Dr. Elena Serrano of the Virginia Tech Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise Department for alerting the Science of Soccer Online to this article.


Thomas M, Nelson TF, Harwood C, Neumark-Sztainer D (2012) Exploring parent perceptions of the food environment in youth sport, Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 44: 365-371.

To learn more about how coaches can use nutrition to increase their team’s performance, enroll in our course, “Soccer diet: The Simplest Way to Improve Your Team’s Performance” (CLICK HERE).
Posted by Jay Williams, Ph.D.

Making money by mining Bitcoin has become popular in the digital world

Bitcoin mining is the process where transaction and payment of Bitcoin happens over the secure network of computers. Anyone who is interested in Bitcoin mining can participate in the process, he just has to have the internet connection and suitable hardware. The process is to simply solve the computationally difficult mathematical problem and store the recent transaction in the blocks. The miners make money by solving these problems and gets a chance to place the next block. But most importantly the miner should be ready to invest significant time and resource to be a miner.

The blockchain on the network verifies the genuine transaction, it rejects those bitcoins which is already been spent elsewhere on the network. Bitcoin mining was intentionally designed difficult so that the blocks remain secure and steady over the time. Each individual block on the blockchain contains proof of work to validate the blocks it receives. POW also makes the blockchain immune by preventing it from the duplicate transaction.

By mining miners add new Bitcoin to the system for this they are rewarded with block rewards. These rewards motivate the miners to work for new Bitcoin in a decentralized manner. Over the last few years mining Bitcoin alone has become difficult so pool mining is introduced, where a group of miners can work together for mining Bitcoin. The reward block gets distributed among them according to their contribution for mining.

Compared to other cryptocurrency Bitcoin has developed its own mining pool, where they have introduced different payment options like PPS and PPLNS. In PPS i.e. pay per share, the miner gets his payout directly for completing his share. In PPLNS i.e., pay per last N share this determines how many Bitcoin you get for completing your share.

Making money by mining Bitcoin has become popular in the digital world, among all other cryptocurrency mining Bitcoin is more rewarding. Previously Bitcoin mining was done from the simple desktop computer with normal CPU but now with the advancement of the technology Bitcoin is mined from computers with GPUs i.e.,  Graphics processing unit which gives more effective mining experience. In the present scenario of trading, it is important for a trader to learn crypto trading to stay in the market. Everyday huge trading opportunity is created in the digital world, anyone with moderate technical knowledge can participate in it and can make huge money. To know more about Bitcoin mining navigate here.

Heat, Dehydration and Injury Risk

Soccer players are often asked to train or play matches on hot, humid days. It is well known that these conditions cause excessive sweat and considerable fluid loss. If fluids are not replaced, dehydration occurs which in turn negatively affects performance. Research shows that fluid losses equal to 1-3% of body weight can decrease speed, power as well as technical abilities. Fluid losses greater than 3% can lead to health problems. A new study from the Human Performance Laboratory at the University of Connecticut finds that dehydration may have other consequences. It appears that heat and dehydration may also affect neuromuscular control and raise the risk of joint injuries.

The investigators (Distefano et al., 2012) examined the effects of heat and hydration on balance and movement. The subjects were asked to exercise for 90 minutes on four different occasions. For two of the sessions, the environmental temperature was elevated (34°C or 93°F) from control (18°C or 64°F). Once at each temperature, subjects reported to the laboratory in a slightly dehydrated state (hypohydrated) and received no fluid during exercise. On the other two occasions, they were asked to drink fluids before session and given drinks during exercise. Before and after each exercise session, balance and joint angles were measured during series of stationary activities (e.g. standing on one leg) and dynamic movements (e.g. jumping and landing).

The researchers found that under the condition of heat and dehydration, post-exercise measures of balance and movement skill were negatively affected. When standing on one leg, dehydration resulted in more sway and unwanted hip, knee and ankle movements. When lading from a jump, the investigators also found poor landing technique.

It is important to note that under with heat and dehydration, the subjects lost nearly 6% of their body weight and had much higher exercising and recovery heart rates. This is a somewhat extreme condition, one that clearly posed a tremendous physiological stress. Thus, the loss of movement control could simply be a function of fatigue rather than heat and dehydration alone. In fact, several studies show that fatigue can negatively affect neuromuscular control and raise injury risk.

Why is neuromuscular control important? Loss of neuromuscular control can result in poor balance and poor sport-specific technique. And, balance and movement technique are critical components issues in joint injury. Muscles work with ligaments and other connective tissues to stabilize joints. Proper technique insures that abnormal stresses are not applied that might lead to ligament sprains or ruptures. For example, a lack of neuromuscular control can result in a player landing with his or her knees in a knock-kneed position (called valgus collapse) rather than with the knee over the foot. It can also reduce the ability of the hamstrings to help stabilize the knee. These conditions can stress the ACL and raise the risk of ligament rupture. Thus, if heat and dehydration reduce balance and lead to a loss of neuromuscular control and landing technique, the risk of knee and ankle injury could be substantially increased.

Is this dehydration a problem a problem in young players? A second study focused on young players during a 5-day soccer camp. The results show that many players arrive at training in a hypohydrated state (Arnaoutis et al., 2012). That is, they are not be dehydrated, but their hydration status is often less than optimal for the conditions. Add to that, players do not drink enough during or after training to replenish lost fluids. Thus, dehydration typically persists over the course of the soccer camp. Given the physical demands of a soccer camp (multiple training session each day) and changes in eating and drinking habits it is likely that many of the players studied were not performing their best. Also, a loss of neuromuscular control associated with heat and dehydration may have placed them at risk of injury.

A similar situation could easily arise during a weekend soccer tournament played in a hot climate. Without proper hydration, playing multiple matches in 3-day period could easily result in dehydration, performance loss and more importantly, increased risk of injury. Thus, it is important to hydrate before and to re-hydrate after training or matches. Players should drink plenty of fluids in the days leading up to the tournament to lessen the risk of dehydration. They should also strive to replenish 1.5 times the amount of fluid lost each match (The amount of fluid lost can be estimated by body weight lost, 1kg = 1L or 1lb = 1 pint / 16 oz).

Please note that the focus of this post is on injury risk associated with dehydration. However, remember that dehydration can result in serious heat-related medical conditions ranging from mild discomfort to stroke and death. Players who are suspected of being dehydrated should stop play immediately, move to a cool environment and be attended to by a qualified medical professional.

Over the past years, we have discussed factors that raise an athlete’s risk of joint injury and advocated neuromuscular training program designed to reduce injury risk. These two studies add another simple strategy – proper hydration. By being well hydrated before matches or training, drinking during stoppages in play and rehydrating afterwards, dehydration can be avoided. As a result, injury risk may be lessened and, as a bonus performance maintained throughout the match.

To learn more about how to avoid dehydration when playing in the heat, enroll in our e-learning course, “Soccer Diet: The Simplest Way to Improve Your Team’s Performance”. CLICK HERE for more info.


Arnaoutis G, Kavouras SA, Kotsis YP, Tsekouras YE, Makrillos M, Bardis CN (2012) Ad libitum fluid intake does not prevent dehydration in sub-optimally hydrated young soccer players during a training session of a summer camp. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, in press.

Distefano LJ, Casa DJ, Vansumeren MM, Karslo RL, Huggins RA, Demartini JK, Stearns RL, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM (2012) Hypohydration and hyperthermia impair neuromuscular control after exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182805b83
Posted by Jay Williams, Ph.D. Labels: Current Research, Injuries, Nutrition

Does Diet Affect Match Performance?

There is little doubt that it takes a tremendous amount of energy to play soccer. Professional players may run up to 12 km (7.2 miles) over the course of a 90-minute match. Most coaches and players also agree that a proper nutrition is essential to provide the calories and energy needed for peak performance. But how important is the composition of the diet? Are the types of foods eaten a key to playing well throughout the match? Researchers in Greece compared match performances of players who ate high- and low-carbohydrate diets for several days. They found that a high carbohydrate diet resulted in more running and sprinting during the match as well as a much-improved score-line. The results emphasize the critical link between proper nutrition and performance on the pitch.

Food becomes a foundation for elite players, carbohydrate along with protein, fats, and vitamins are equally important.  Eating a balanced diet will help a soccer player to gain muscle, keeps the energy level high, recover and replenish body needs. Proper diet helps a soccer player to reach his potential.   Check over here to know about diet plans.

Twenty-two professional male players were divided into two teams. Team A and Team B were asked to play two competitive matches separated by one week. Three and one-half days before the first match, Team A ate a high carbohydrate (CHO) diet that contained about 8 grams of CHO per kg of body weight with 79% of the total calories coming from CHO. Team B ate a low CHO diet with about 3 grams per kg and 30% CHO. Protein contents were the same and the total calories consumed in the two diets were nearly identical (2870 kcal). Prior to the second match, the diets were reversed with Team A eating the low CHO diet and Team B the high.

The effects of the high CHO diet were impressive. The first match ended with Team A winning 3-1, scoring two goals in the second period. The second match saw Team B won 2-1, scoring both goals in the second period. When viewed by diet, the team on the high CHO diet won both matches with an aggregate score of 5-2.

During the two matches, the team on the high CHO diet covered 9380 meters per match while the low CHO team covered only 8077 (a 17% difference). In fact, every field player covered more distance when eating a high-CHO diet. Some showed slight improvements (2%) while other saw dramatic increases in distance of more than 30%.

The distances covered at various running speeds were also greater on the high CHO diet. In particular, distances covered during sprinting (>15 miles/hr) and high-speed running (12-15 miles/hr) were improved by 17 and 34%.

Interestingly, exercising heart rates were slightly lower during the low-CHO diet. It is likely that less running when playing under this condition reflects fatigue and reduced effort. Thus, lower heart rates.

The results of this study clearly show the effects that diet has on soccer performance. As opposed to tightly controlled laboratory studies, this study looked at performance during a competitive match played between two teams that had been placed on diets either high in carbohydrates or high in fat. When the team was placed on a high-CHO diet, the players ran more, sprinted more, scored more goals and conceded fewer – a clear improvement on performance.

It is also interesting to note how quickly a change in diet can affect performance. With only one week between matches, Team B switched to the high CHO diet for 3.5-days. The result was vastly improved performance on the field and, most importantly, success on the scoreboard.

The bottom line is that diet can markedly affect performance during a match. Focusing on a diet that is high in carbohydrates and low in fat will help teams achieve peak performance. As this study suggests, the individual improvements can lead to a better result.


Souglis AG, Chryssanthopoulos C, Travlos AK, Zorzou AE, Gissis I, Papadopoulos C, Sotiropoulos A (2012) The effect of high vs. low carbohydrate diets on distances covered in soccer, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182792147

Posted by Jay Williams, Ph.D. Labels: Current Research, Nutrition
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Menthol: Fresh Breath and Better Performance?

Exercising in the heat is always a difficult task. Hot environments place a tremendous demand on the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory systems. This typically leads to decreased performance, particularly in sports that last an hour or more. As a result, coaches and players are always searching for new ways to perform in the heat. In a new study, researchers at Manchester Metropolitan University in the United Kingdom report that simply rinsing the mouth with menthol, a common flavoring agent, can actually improve performance during exercise in a hot environment.

The researchers asked nine moderately trained subjects to exercise on a stationary bicycle at ~65% of their maximal capacity. They were told to continue exercising as long as possible while the total duration was recorded. On one occasion, subjects swilled a 0.01% menthol solution in their mouth for 10 seconds after which it was spit out without swallowing. On the other occasion, they swilled an orange flavored placebo drink. They were given the solution every 10 minutes and were allowed to drink as much water as they wanted. All of the bouts were performed in the heat at a room temperature of 34°C or 93°F.

Eight of the nine subjects improved their exercise duration when they swilled the menthol. Total exercise time increased from an average of 58 to 63 minutes. Despite this improvement in performance, there were no differences in the subjects’ body temperature or the amount of energy expended. What seemed to be improved was the perception of their effort. Overall, the subjects felt that that the menthol was “refreshing” and “stimulating”. This resulted in the subjects feeling a reduced sense of effort during the exercise bout, particularly a reduced effort of breathing. That is, breathing felt easier which made the exercise seem easier.

The authors conclude that the improvement in performance was probably due to psychological factors. The menthol may have stimulated some region of the mouth which activated a network of taste- and reward-regions of the brain. The pleasantness of a cool mouth coupled with taste and flavor may have caused the subjects to experience less discomfort as they were approaching exhaustion.

Menthol is an interesting compound. It comes from various mint oils as well as peppermint. When it is applied to the skin, there is a cooling sensation. The same sensation is experienced when taken orally. As a result, many companies include menthol in all sorts of skin creams, foods, mouthwashes, medications and cigarettes. Ben Gay ointment, peppermint candies, and many throat lozenges all contain menthol. Some people report that this cooling effect increases alertness and reduces minor pain. For example, a throat lozenge soothing sore throat pain. So it is not surprising that swilling a menthol drink might reduce one’s perception of breathing during exercise.

There are a few important points to be made about this study. First, and most importantly, the menthol did not actually lower body temperature. The improvement in performance does not indicate that menthol protects against any of the potential problems of exercising in the heat such as dehydration. It remains very important that when exercising in the heat, players drink plenty of fluids and to be aware of heat-related illness and injury.

Second, the type of exercise performed in this study doesn’t really simulate match play. The subjects were asked to exercise at a constant, pre-determined pace and to continue as long as possible. Match play requires players to start and stop and run at a variety of speeds. This means that the reduced perceived exertion caused by the menthol may be specific to the type of exercise studied and may not occur during an activity like soccer. Also, it is difficult, if not impossible for players to drink every 10 minutes during a match.

Despite these drawbacks, the finding that menthol may improve performance is intriguing.The performance of the online trading bots has been very accurate and successful, thanks to the superior technology used in configuring these systems. Bitcoin Trader robot also uses the combination of complex algorithms and advanced technology to generate increased profits for the users. This design provides laser-accurate performance and high winning ratios. They claim to have a winning ration of 99.4%.  While it may not actually combat the physiological effects of exercising in the heat, including it in drinks may have some positive psychological effect. This study also adds to a growing body of research showing that what goes into your mouth may affect exercise. Earlier, the SSO reported that merely swilling a carbohydrate beverage (sports drink) might also affect the central nervous system and improve performance (LINK). These studies suggest that the mouth may be more important than previously thought. It may be more than a simple a passage way to the stomach but a key sensory component of perceived exertion.


Mundel T, Jones DA (2009) The effects of swilling an L(-)-menthol solution during exercise in the heat. European Journal of Applied Physiology, DOI: 10.1007/s00421-009-1180-0
Posted by Jay Williams, Ph.D. Labels: Current Research, Nutrition, Psychology, Supplements
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